Saturday, July 25, 2015

Guilty or Innocent?: Depositions of Pirates David Herriot and Ignatius Pell - October 1718



Partially excerpted from Quest for Blackbeard: The True Story of Edward Thache and His World 

Also told briefly in the video, Did Blackbeard the Pirate Wreck His Own Ship (QAR) on Purpose?... 
  

Capt. Charles Johnson (alias for Nathaniel Mist) took his information about the capture of Stede Bonnet directly from the official court transcript and his detail accurately reflected that document. In fact, he quoted this transcript almost word for word. He states:
  • In a few Days two Sloops were equipped and manned: The Henry with 8 Guns and 70 Men, commanded by Captain John Masters, and the Sea Nymph, with 8 Guns and 60 Men, commanded by Captain Fayrer Hall, both under the entire Direction and Command of the aforesaid Colonel Rhet, who, on the 14th of September, went on Board the Henry, and, with the other Sloop, sailed from Charles-Town to Swillivants Island, to put themselves in order for the Cruize… On the 26th following, in the Evening, the Colonel with his small Squadron, entered the River, and saw, over a Point of Land, three Sloops at an Anchor, which were Major Bonnet and his Prizes; but it happened that in going up the River, the Pilot run the Colonel’s Sloops aground, and it was dark before they were on Float, which hindered their getting up that Night. The Pyrates soon discovered the Sloops, but not knowing who they were, or upon what Design they came into that River, they manned three Canoes, and sent them down to take them, but they quickly found their Mistake, and returned to the Sloop, with the unwelcome News. Major Bonnet made Preparations that Night for engaging, and took all the Men out of the Prizes. He shewed Captain Manwaring, one of his Prisoners, a Letter, he had just wrote, which he declared he would send to the Governor of Carolina; the Letter was to this Effect, viz. That if the Sloops, which then appeared, were sent out against him, by the said Governor, and he should get clear off, that he would burn and destroy all Ships or Vessels going in or coming out of South-Carolina. The next Morning they got under Sail, and came down the River, designing only a running Fight. Colonel Rhet’s Sloops got likewise under Sail, and stood for him, getting upon each Quarter of the Pyrate, with Intent to board him; which he perceiving, edged in towards the Shore, and being warmly engaged, their Sloop ran a-ground: The Carolina Sloops being in the same shoal Water, were in the same Circumstances; the Henry, in which Colonel Rhet was, grounded within Pistol shot of the Pyrate, and on his Bow; the other Sloop [Sea Nymph under Fayrer Hall] grounded right a-head of him, and almost out of Gun-Shot, which made her of little Service to the Colonel….
Bonnet’s ship listed away from Rhett’s which provided cover for him and his men while Rhett’s was exposed. Hall’s Sea Nymph, remarkably also grounded, remained quite clear of the main scene of battle. In slapstick comedic fashion, three grounded vessels and their crews exchanged shots with one another while the captive Francis and Fortune and Dalton’s cannibalized shallop watched. When the vessels were refloated by the rising tide, Rhett’s Henry, fortunately for him, came loose first and he made for the Royal James, intending to board, but Bonnet quickly surrendered. 

Gov. Robert Johnson reported that “Wee had killed on board Collo. Rhett eight men and fourteen wounded, of which four are since dead, and on board Capt. [Fayrer] Hall, two killed and six wounded.”  The governor, however, failed to report that only one pirate was killed. “The said pirates are now prisoners here,” he added triumphantly, “and wee are prepairing for their tryall.”  Of course, the governor also did not fail to mention the great expense he sustained for the good of the king’s dominion. Still, his was perhaps a minority opinion.

Edward Crisp map of Charles Town, South Carolina - 1711
A trial ensued in late October under Vice-Admiralty judge Nicholas Trott, nephew and son of the infamous pirate Trotts of Bermuda and the Bahamas.  Trott, during Stede Bonnet’s trial in Charles Town, called Jamaica “a Place that is almost ruin’d by the Pirates.”  Trott carefully avoided the English origins and previous support of piracy as he introduced the trial, although he often mentioned Thache’s recent blockade of Charles Town Harbor, an event at which many of the prisoners were present. The most recent Charlestonian wound sustained at the hands of Charles Vane served only to initiate Bonnet’s capture, it seems.  Thache's recent insult, however, was foremost on Judge Trott's mind.

Trott also blamed the Spanish for breaking up the buccaneers at the Bay of Campeche, which caused them to infest Jamaica. Moreover, he blamed the deprived behavior of the Bahamas residents, of English, Spanish, and French origin, he said. Still, he did not mention the English governor of Jamaica inviting the outcasts of the Bay of Campeche to serve as a military force to protect his island. He did not mention his uncle, Bahama governor Nicholas Trott the elder, dealing in £3,000-£7,000 of pirated goods with Henry Avery. He did not blame the Lords Proprietors of Carolina for creating the neglected atmosphere that ruined the Bahamas. He neither blamed them for creating a similar atmosphere conducive to piracy and corruption in the Carolinas, nor for private colonies ruining the whole continent and its ability to trade. 


Trott never talked about how necessary the English believed that these pirates were to their protection just decades earlier. Still, he certainly understood that the English were truly responsible for creating these pirates, even above the Spanish or the French. He tried very few pirates of other than English origin. Indeed, the English started much of the problem when they came to the West Indies to steal from other nations. Trott knew this history; he was aware of the irony of the show trial that he conducted. Only then, by the time of the trial in the early eighteenth century, when much of the possessions of the West Indies had been stolen and now used by the English, did they want these wild piracies to stop. Only then did the English-made “common enemies of mankind” threaten them as well. Only when his new home of Charles Town was personally threatened did Trott complain at all. Trott, unlike Edward Randolph, was born in the West Indies and raised there. Piracy was in his blood, as it was with all natural-born Americans.


The trial against Bonnet, of course, was a sham. No defense was provided for the pirates, or even offered. The twenty-three members of the jury consisted entirely of wealthy merchants of Charles Town, all of whom had probably lost a great deal to these pirates and particularly hated Blackbeard. “The standards and procedures of these courts would seem appalling to today’s judicial process,” remarked Bonnet’s biographer, Christopher Byrd Downey.  They were lax even by standards of the day. Downey also relates that “many considered [Judge] Trott to be a self-righteous bully, and complaints had been made… that Trott had abused his position and authority.”  


David Herriot's deposition is routinely used as the evidence that Edward Thache aka "Blackbeard the Pirate" purposefully ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge aground in Beaufort Inlet (then called Topsail). The depositions of both Herriot and Ignatius Pell were given in trade for their immunity. Ignatius Pell only agrees with Herriot in the deposition, but later in the trial affirms his statement that Thache was guilty of grounding his ship on purpose. Herriot and Pell were not tried with the other pirates captured in the Cape Fear River on September 27, 1718. In fact, their names do not even appear on the title page of the printed trial transcripts published in 1721 in Charles Town. Their immunity stands as a significant factor in light of their testimonies being the only ones to actually accuse Edward Thache of such vile treachery.

Title page of Stede Bonnet Trial - 1721


Deposition of David Herriot of Jamaica:

Note that all standard "s" characters have been changed and all italicization has been removed, except where ship names require it. Capitalization remains the same.

The Information of David Herriot md Ignatius Pell Mariners, given to Richard Allen and Thomas Hepworth Esquires, Two of His Majesties Justices of the Peace for Berkly County, in the Province of South Carolina, against Major Stede Bonnet, Commander of the Sloop Revenge, alias Royal James, and against Robert Tucker Quarter-Master, Edward Robinson Gunner, Thomas Carman, John-William Smith, Neal Paterson, John Lopez, William Hewet, John Levit, Job Beely alias Bayley, William Scot, Thomas Nichols, John Ridge, Thomas Garrat a Molatto, John alias Bayley, Zachariah Long, Matthew King, James Robbins, Rowland Sharp, Samuel Booth, William Livers alias Evis, John Brierly, William Wallis, Daniel Perry, Henry Virgin, George Ross, George Dunkin, Alexander Annand, William Eddy alias Nedy, William Morrison, John Thomas, James Mullet alias Millet, Thomas Price, Robert Boyd, Jonathan Clarke, and James Wilson, all Mariners, belonging to the said Sloop Revenge, alias the Royal James, under the Command of the said Major Stede Bonnet, the Twenty fourth Day of October, in the Fifth Year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George, by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. Annoq; Domini 1718.

The said David Herriot and Ignatius Pell being duly sworn on the Holy Evangelists of Almighty God, depose and say as follow: And First, this Deponent, the said David Herriot, says, That about the Twenty second Day of March last he sailed out from Jamaica as Master in a Sloop called the Adventure, of the Burden of Eighty Tons, or thereabouts, whereof Matthew Taylor, of the County of Devon, Mariner; John Devine of Leyden, in the Province of Holland, Merchant; and James Robberts of Bristol Mariner, are Owners; and was bound for the Bay of Honduras, chartered by one Major Daniel Axdell to one William Stewart, of Honduras aforesaid. 


Says, That about the 4th or 5th of April last this Deponent came into the Bay of Turneff, about ten Leagues from the Bay of Honduras, and there saw a Ship and two Sloops, which this Deponent first apprehended to be Capt. Wyar, who came out of Jamaica with four other Sloops about a Week before this Deponent, and designed to come to an Anchor there. But soon after he perceiving the said Ship did not belong to the said Wyar, this Deponent took them for Spaniards, and then tacked about, and then the Ship fired a Gun at this Deponent's Sloop; and the said Sloop Revenge, then commanded by one Richards, a Pirate, slipped her Cable, and came up to this Deponent with a Black Flag hoisted, and ordered this Deponent to hoist out his Boat, and come on board them, which he did; and then the said Sloop Revenge sent five of their Hands in this Deponent's Boat back again to this Deponent's Sloop, and brought this Deponent's Sloop to an Anchor under the Ship's Stern.

Says, That the Ship which this Deponent imagined to belong to Mr. Wyar, was a Ship of forty Guns mounted, named the Queen Anne's Revenge, commanded by one Edward Thatch, a Pirate. And says, He then was inform'd by the Pirate Crew, that the said Major Stede Bonnet was on board the said Thatch, but out of Command, being some time before turn'd out of his Command by the said Thatch and the Pirate Crew, as he was inform'd.

And this Deponent further says, That at the time he was taken, as aforesaid there was another Sloop in their Company, which the said Pirates called their Prize; but know not her Name, nor the Master's. And deposes, That at the time he was taken there were on board the Sloop the Royal James, then called the Revenge, or the said Ship the Queen Anne's Revenge, the following Persons, viz. Edward Robinson Gunner, Neal Paterson, John Lopez, Job Beely alias Bayly, Willam Scot, Thomas Nichols, Zachariah Long, Matthew King, William Livers alias Evis, Daniel Perry, Henry Virgin, William Eddy alias Nedy, James Mullet alias Millet, Thomas Price, and James Wilson ; but by reason of their frequent shifting from the said Ship the Oueen Anne's Revenge to the said Sloop Revenge, now the Royal James, cannot say properly to which of them they belonged.

That about the Eighth or Ninth Day of April aforesaid, the said Thatch and Richards weighed Anchor from the Key of Turneff, and came to Anchor in the Evening of the same Day at Water-Key, about a League or two from the Bay of Honduras; and the next Morning weighed Anchor, and went into Honduras-Bay, where there lay four Sloops, and a Ship named the Protestant Caesar, Capt. Wyar Commander, from Jamaica last, but belonging to Boston, as'twas then reported. Says, That he knows not the Sloops Names; but three of them were commanded by Jonathan Bernard of Jamaica, Master of one of them, and Owner of three of the said four Sloops. 


Charles Leslie's Map of the West Indies - Bay of Honduras focus - 1740

Says, That one of the said Sloops came to descry what they were, and took said Thatch and Richards for Spaniards; but said Thatch fired a Gun, and hoisted his Black Flag. Whereupon Capt. Wyar and all his Men took to their Boat, and Went afhore ; and then Thatch sent one [William] Howard, his Quarter-Matter, and eight of his Crew, onboard of Wyar's Ship; but knows not what they took out of her. And says, That said Richards was employed in securing the other four Sloops.

And this Deponent further deposes, That two or three Days after the said Thatch and Richards set fire to Capt. Wyar's Ship, because she belonged to Boston, alledging the People of Boston had hanged some of the Pirates, and so burnt her. 


Says, The said Thatch burnt one of the four Sloops, because she belonged to Capt. James of Jamaica; which James, as 'twas alledged, had said he would not employ those Sailors in his Service that had accepted of the King's Proclamation ; and the other three Sloops, belonging to Bernard, they let go. From thence the said Richards and Thatch with this Deponent's Sloop, mann'd by some of the said Pirates, went to Turckcill, and from thence to the Grand Camania, being an Island belonging to the Spaniards, lying about sixty Leagues to the Westward of Jamaica, where they took a small Turtler. From thence they sailed towards the Havana, and from thence towards the Bahama Wrecks. From the Bahama Wrecks they came and lay off the Bar of Charles-Town in South Carolina, to wit, about the Month of May last, for the space of five or six Days; where the said Thatch and Richards took a Ship commanded by one Robert Clark, bound from Charles-Town aforesaid to London. 

Says, He has heard by the Pirates there were both Goods and Money taken out of the said Clark's Ship, but knows not the Particulars, this Deponent being then on board his own Sloop.

Says, That said Thatch and Richards, whilst they lay off the Bar of Charles-Town, took another Vessel coming out from Charles-Town, whose Name or Master cannot remember; and that they, the said Thatch and Richards, took two Pinks coming into Charles-Town from England; and heard them say they likewise took a Brigantine with Negroes, but knows not the Names of the two Pinks or Brigantine, or the Names of the Commanders, and knows not what they took out of them; and after detaining them some few Days, they let them go again. 


That said Thatch and Richards set sail from the Bar of Charles-Town with this Deponent's Sloop for North Carolina; and this Deponent asked why they detained this Deponent's Sloop? They answer'd, They hoped to meet with the Laver de Cruse Fleet some time or other; and that they kept her for a Fireship.

Says, That about six Days after they left the Bar of Charles-Town, they arrived at Topsail-Inlet in North Carolina, having then under their Command the said Ship Queen Anne's Revenge, the Sloop commanded by Richards, this Deponent's Sloop, commanded by one Capt. Hands, one of the said Pirate Crew, and a small empty Sloop which they found near the Havana. 


And this Deponent in the Voyage from South Carolina to North lost Company, but heard they took one Mason; and heard Thatch afterwards blame Richards for not burning said Mason's Vessel, because she belonged to Boston. That the next Morning after they had all got safe into Topsail-Inlet, except Thatch, the said Thatch's Ship Queen Anne's Revenge run a-ground off of the Bar of Topsail-Inlet, and the said Thatch sent his Quarter-Master to command this Deponent's Sloop to come to his Assistance; but she run a-ground likewise about Gun-shot from the said Thatch, before his said Sloop could come to their Assistance, and both the said Thatch's Ship and this Deponent's Sloop were wreck'd; and the said Thatch and all the other Sloop's Companies went on board the Revenge, afterwards called the Royal James, and on board the other [Spanish] Sloop they found empty off the Havana.

Says, 'Twas generally believed the said Thatch run his Vessel a-ground on purpose to break up the Companies, and to secure what Moneys and Effects he had got for himself and such other of them as he had most Value for. That after the said Ship and this Deponent's Sloop were so cast away, this Deponent requested the said Thatch to let him have a Boat, and a few Hands, to go to some inhabited Place in North Carolina, or to Virginia, there being very few and poor Inhabitants in Topsail-Inlet, where they were; and desired the said Thatch to make this Deponent some Satisfaction for his said Sloop: Both which said Thatch promised to do. But instead thereof, ordered this Deponent, with about sixteen more, to be put on shore on a small Sandy Hill or Bank, a League distant from the Main; on which Place there was no Inhabitant, nor Provisions. Where this Deponent and the rest remained two Nights and one Day, and expected to perish; for that said Thatch took away their Boat.

That said Thatch having taken what number of Men he thought fit along with him, he set sail from Topsail-Inlet in the small Spanish Sloop, about eight Guns mounted, forty White Men, and Sixty Negroes, and left the Revenge belonging to Bonnet there, who sent for this Deponent and Company from the said Sandy Bank. And then said Major Stede Bonnet reassumed the Command of his Vessel. And said Bonnet informed this Deponent, that his Intentions was to go to St. Thomas's, and there take a Commission against the Spaniards, hearing there was a War between the Emperor and Spain; and that he would give this Deponent his Passage thither, but could not pay him any Wages: Which this Deponent gladly accepted of.

That the said Major Bonnet being inform'd by a Bomb-Boat that brought Apples and Cyder, that Thatch lay at Ocricock-Inlet with only eighteen or twenty Hands, he resolved to pursue him, and cruised after him for four Days: But missing him, made to Virginia; and standing in with the Land, they met a Pink about ten Leagues to the Southward of Cape Henry about July last, whose Name or Master he knows not. And said Bonnet ordered the Pink to send their Boat, and come on board them. And the said Bonnet took out of her about ten or twelve Barrels of Pork, and about four hundred Weight of Bread.

Says, That feveral of the said Bonnet's Crew went aboard the said Pink: Knows not their particular Names who went on board the Pink ; but says, That at the time when they took the said Pink, there belonged to the said Bonnet the Mariners following, viz., Robert Tucker, Edward Robinson, Job Beely alias Bayly, William Scot, Neal Paterson, John Lopez, William Livers alias Evis, James Mullet alias Millet, James Wilson, John-William Smith, Thomas Nichols, John Ridge, William Eddy alias Nedy, William Hewet, Daniel Perry, Alexander Annand, John Thomas, Matthew King, Zachariah Long, Henry Virgin, Samuel Booth, Thomas Price, and John Robinfon, and eight others, who afterwards run away: All which bore Arms, and all assisted to take the said Pink. But they gave instead of what they took eight or ten Cask of Rice, and one old Cable.

That about the Month of July aforesaid, the said Bonnet, and Crew last abovesaid, gave Chace to a Sloop, about two Leagues off of Cape Henry aforesaid, of about sixty Tons, Master unknown, and Sloop's Name unknown to this Deponent; and fitted out a Dory after her with five Men, who took her, and brought her to the said Bonnet. And the said five Men took out of her two Hogsheads of Rum, one or more Hogsheads of Molosses, and two Negroes, and brought them on board said Bonnet.

Says, That said Bonnet, and all the Mariners last abovesaid, to wit, Robert Tucker, Edward Robinson, Job Beely alias Bayley, William Scot, Neal Paterfon, John Lopez, William Livers alias Evis, James Mullet alias Millet, James Wilson, John-William Smith, Thomas Nichols, John Ridge, William Eddy alias Nedy, William Hewet, Daniel Perry, Alexander Annand, John Thomas, Matthew King, Zachariah Long, Henry Virgin, Samuel Booth, Thomas Price, and John Robinfon, were all helping and assisting to take the Sloop last abovesaid; and that eight Men of the said Crew were put on board her, and afterwards run away with her.

Says, That one William Morrison was taken out of the Sloop last abovesaid, and continued a Prisoner about four or five Days, and then took on with Bonnet, and began to take Arms with the rest at the taking of the two Snows hereafter mentioned, and not before, for that he assisted at the taking the two Snows. Says, That about the same Month of July, as they lay off of Cape Henry, the said Bonnet and Crew took two Ships bound from Virginia for Glascow, whose Names or Masters can't remember, and took about one hundred Weight of Tobacco out of each, and then discharged them.

That about the same Month of July, the said Bonnet and Crew took a Sloop bound from Virginia to Bermudas, about fifty Tons, Master's Name, Sloop's, or Owners, can't remember. And the said Bonnet and Crew took out of her twenty Barrels of Pork, some small Quantity of loose Bacon, and gave him again two Barrels of Rice, and a Hogshead of Molosses, and sent her away.

That Robert Tucker, Edward Robinson, Job Bayley alias Beely, William Scot, Neal Paterfon, John Lopez, William Livers alias Evis, James Mullet alias Millet, James Wilson, John-William Smith, Thomas Nichols, John Ridge, William Eddy alias Nedy, William Hewet, Daniel Perry, Alexander Annand, John Thomas, Matthew King, Zachariah Long, Henry Virgin, Samuel Booth, Thomas Price, and John Robinson, were then on board the said Bonnet, and bore Arms, and helped and assisted to take the said Last mentioned Sloop; and that two Mariners, named Thomas Carman and George Ross, came out of the said last mentioned Bermudas Sloop voluntarily, and that they took on with Bonnet, and bore Arms afterwards amongst the rest.


That sometime in the Month of July the said Bonnet and Crew took another Ship, bound from Virginia to Glascow, can't remember her Name, or the Masters, and took nothing of Value, save only a few Combs, Pins, and Needles; and gave her instead thereof a Barrel of Pork, and two Barrels of Bread.

That about the same Month of July, the said Bonnet and Crew, that is to say, Robert Tucker, Edward Robinson, Job Beely alias Bayley, William Scot, Neal Paterson, John Lopez, William Livers alias Evis, James Mullet alias Millet, James Wilson, John-William Smith, Thomas Nichols, John Ridge, William Eddy alias Nedy, William Hewet, Daniel Perry, Alexander Annand, John Thomas, Matthew King, Zachariah Long, Henry Virgin, Samuel Booth, Thomas Price, John Robinfon, Thomas Carman, and George Ross, took a Scooner as they sailed from Virginia to Philadelphia, in the Latitude of Thirty eight North, coming from North Carolina, bound to Boston, about thirty or forty Tons, Name of the Vessel or Master unknown to this Deponent, and took out of her about two dozen Calf-Skins to make Covers for Guns, and kept her about three Days; and that the said William Wallis and John Levit came but of the said Scooner voluntarily, and took on with said Bonnet and Crew, and bore Arms with the rest.

That during the said three Days the said Bonnet and Crew, that is to say, Robert Tucker, Edward Robinson, Job Beely alias Bayley, William Scot, Neal Paterson, John Lopez., William Livers alias Evis, James Mullet alias Millet, James Wilson, John-William Smith, Thomas Nichols, John Ridge, William Eddy alias Nedy, William Hewet, Daniel Perry, Alexander Annand, John Thomas, Matthew King, Zachariah Long, Henry Virgin, Samuel Booth, Thomas Price, John Robinson, Thomas Carman, George Ross, William Wallis, and Joseph Levit, took two Snows off Dellaware Bay, thirty nine Degrees North-Latitude, near Philadelphia, of the Burden of about ninety Tons, each bound from Philadelphia to Bristol, Snows Names and Masters knows not. Believes there was Money and Goods taken out of the said Snows, but knows nothing of the Particulars. Detain'd them about a Day, and dismissed them. That at the same time the said Bonnet and Crew took a Sloop of the Burden of sixty Tons, bound from Philadelphia to Barbadoes, Names of Vessel or Master unknown. Knows not whether they took Goods out of her, or not; dismiss'd her with the Snows. 


But says, That George Dunkin, came out of said last mentioned Sloop voluntarily, at the same time when [Capt. Thomas] Read was taken, as hereafter mentioned, and took on with said Bonnet, and bore Arms amongst the rest at the taking of Manwareing and Dalton, hereafter mention'd. That during those three Days in the Month of July aforefaid, to wit, about the 28th, 29th, or 30th of the same Month, the said Bonnet and Crew took a Sloop [Fortune], Burden of fifty or sixty Tons, commanded by Capt. Thomas Read, as they lay off of Delaware-Bay, about six or seven Leagues, bound from Philadelphia to Barbadoes, loaden with Provisions, and put four or five Hands of the said Bonnet's Crew on board her.

That about the last Day of July, the said Bonnet and Crew, as they lay at the Hore-Kills in Delaware-Bay aforesaid, off Cape Inlopen, took a Sloop [Francis] about the Burden of sixty Tons, commanded by Peter Manwareing, bound from Antegoa to Philadelphia, loaden chiefly with Rum, Molosses, and Sugar: The said Bonnet and Crew took Molosses out of her, and put it on board the said Scooner ; but knows not the Particulars, because he lay at a distance.

That the next Day the said Bonnet and Crew sailed out of Delaware-Bay, and carried said Read's and Manwareing's Sloops along with them ; and about the 12th Day of August they came into Cape Fear River, in order to repair their Sloop the Revenge alias Royal James, which was' very leaky, and stayed there till about the 29th of September following, waiting till the Time of Hurrican Weather was over, being bound for St. Thomas's next.

That at the time of taking the said Sloops belonging to Read and Manwareing, there were on board the Sloop Revenge alias Royal James, or on board the said Scooner, the said Major Stede Bonnet, Robert Tucker Quarter-Master, Edward Robinson Gunner, Thomas Carman, John-William Smith, Neal Paterfon, John Lopez, William Hewet, John Levit, Job Beely alias Bayley, William Scot, Thomas Nichols, John Ridge, Zachariah Long, Matthew King, James Robbins, Samuel Booth, William Livers alias Evis, William Wallis, Daniel Perry, Henry Virgin, George Ross, Alexander Annand, William Eddy alias Nedy, William Morrison, John Thomas, James Mullet alias Millet, Thomas Price, James Wilson; but that George Dunkin was only at the taking of Manwareing and Dalton.

That all the said Crew bore Arms freely and voluntarily, and were all consenting and assisting in taking the said two sloops belonging to the said Read and Manwareing, except the said George Dunkin, who was only at the taking of Manwareing and Dalton, and then bore Arms likewise amongst the rest. And as the said last mentioned Sloops lay in Cape Fear, said Bonnet and all or the greatest part of his Crew, were on board said Read and Manwareing's Sloops; and said Read and Manwareing Were detain'd by the said Bonnet and his Crew in Cape Fear River aforesaid, for the space of six or eight Weeks.

That there were several Parcels of Goods taken by the said Bonnet and his Crew both out of Read and Manwareing's Sloops, but cannot tell the Particulars. That whilst the said Bonnet and Crew lay in Cape Fear River, the said Bonnet and Crew took a little Shallop of about six Tons, belonging to one Dalton and ripped her up to mend the Revenge alias the Royal James.

That about the 27th Day of September last, the said Bonnet and Crew, as they lay in Cape Fear River, were attacked by two Sloops, under the Command of Colonel William Rhett, who were fitted out by the Government of South Carolina to take Pirates, as he has heard ; and after a Fight of six Hours, the said Bonnet and Crew surrendered themselves under certain Terms, which are now in the Pirate Prisoners Custody, to which he refers himself.

Says, That at the time of the Engagement with the Sloops under the Command of Colonel Wiliiam Rhett, there were belonging to the said Sloop the Royal James, the said Major Stede Bonnet Commander, Robert Tucker, Edward Robinson, Thomas Carman, John-William Smith, Neal Paterson, John Lopez, William Hewet, John Levit, Job Beely alias Bayley, William Scot, John Ridge, Zachariah Long, Matthew King, James Robbins, Samuel Booth, William Livers alias Evis, William Wallis, Daniel Perry, Henry Virgin, George Ross, George Dunkin, Alexander Annand, William Eddy aVias Nedy, William Morrison, John Thomas, James Mullet alias Millet, Thomas Price, and James Wilson; but says, That Thomas Nichols would not bear Arms at the time of the said Engagement, but went down in the Hole all the time, and was very uneasy about two Months before, and wanted to quit the Revenge.

And this Deponent further says, That at the time of the Engagement there were likewise on board the said Revenge alias Royal James, those five several other Persons which were not concerned in the taking any of the Vessels before mentioned, via. Thomas Gerrat a Molatto, which was one of the said Manwareing's Mariners; Rowland Sharp, which came from North Carolina in a Perriager; John Brierly, which came in a Boat from North Carolina, Robert Boyd, who came with Brierly from North Carolina, and Jonathan Clarke, which came out of Mr. Dalton's Sloop; which said five Persons, via. Garrat, Sharp, Brierly, Boyd, and Clarke, all bore Arms voluntarily at the time of the said Engagement. 


Says, The last five mentioned Persons were taken at first, but bore Arms freely afterwards in the said Engagement. And says, That John Dalton never bore Arms at the time of the Engagement, nor no other time; nor was the said Dalton concerned in any Act of Piracy whatsoever, to this Deponent's knowledge.

Ignatius Pell deposition:

And this Deponent Ignatius Pell deposes, That all and singular the Matters and Things herein before deposed by the said David Herriot are true, in such manner and sort as the same are above declared to be done and transacted from the 4th or 5th of April last ; with these additional Circumstances, That the said Bonnet and Crew took out of the Pink they met as they came from Topsail-Inlet an Anchor and Cable; and that said Thatch took out of the Brigantine he took off the Bar of Charles-Town fourteen Negroes; and that he heard Thatch tell the Commander of the said Brigantine, That he had got a Baker's Dozen.

That there were a Cable and about twenty one Hogsheads of Molosses taken by said Bonnet and Crew out of said Manwareing's Sloop while they in Delaware-Bay, and some Rum and other Provisions, as the said Bonnet and Crew wanted them. Says, The said Bonnet and Crew took out of the said Read's Sloop, while she lay in Cape Fear River, several Barrels of Pork and Flower, and other Provisions, but knows not the Particulars ; as also said Read's Square-Sail, and Topsail, and his Chain-Plates.

Says, The said Bonnet's Crew, about three Days before they came to Cape Fear, shared about ten or eleven Pounds Sterling each Man, which is all the Money they shared. Says, He heard by the Pirate Crew aboard Thatch, that Thatch took out of the Vessels that were taken off of the Bar of South Carolina, in Gold and Silver, to the Value of one thousand Pounds Sterling Money; and by others of them, to the Value of fifteen hundred Pounds Sterling Money : But that when Thatch broke up the Company, and before they came to any Share of what was taken by Thatch, Thatch took all away with him.

Sworn before us,
RICHARD ALLEIN.
THOMAS HEPWORTH.



Afterword:

David Herriot never confessed guilt in the entire affair. As far as he was concerned, he was completely innocent of all piracies. Still, during the trial, a local Goose Creek citizen and later pirate, Richard Tookerman helped Stede Bonnet and David Herriot break jail. They escaped to Sullivan's Island where they put up a fight with slaves and weapons provided by Tookerman. Herriot was shot and killed in the battle and one slave was injured. The question is: How innocent could Herriot have been?  Can we believe his testimony? Furthermore, the "Major Daniel Axdell" that he referred to as initially sending his ship to the Bay of Honduras where he was "captured" by Thache may have been an in-law of Edward Thache, named "Daniel Axtell of Port Royal, Jamaica." Furthermore, three other "bloody-flag-flying" ships (see article below) were also there under Jonathan Bernard of St. Catherine's Parish, Jamaica that may have accompanied Herriot's Adventure from Jamaica and may have been pirates as well. Herriot may not have been with Thache by accident.

Portion of article showing that the three sloops of Jonathan Bernard were probably pirates as well, as Capt. Wyar believed, or at least there to assist Thache, perhaps re-provision his ship that may have been low on necessaries: from Boston News-Letter, Monday June 9, to Monday June 16, 1718.
 
Out of the thirty-five men examined during the trial only Herriot and Pell mentioned that the QAR was grounded on purpose. Only three others even mentioned the grounding at all, but in neutral terms. Herriot claimed that "'Twas generally believed the said Thatch run his Vessel a-ground on purpose to break up the Companies, and to secure what Moneys and Effects he had got for himself and such other of them as he had most Value for." Still, no one else appeared to harbor these feelings toward Edward Thache, not even the other twenty-four men that Thache marooned probably on Harbor Island in Core Sound, North Carolina. It wasn't "generally believed" by their ship mates, so who?

Furthermore, Tookerman owned the Sea Nymph, a ship captained by Fayrer Hall and one of the sloops that captured Stede Bonnet and his men in the Cape Fear River. Why was it that Hall's sloop grounded further from the battle and received less damage in the three-hour battle between Col. William Rhett's two sloops and Stede Bonnet's? 

South Carolina Misc. Records, 4 December 1718, p. 56.
Tookerman boldly demanded damages for the Sea Nymph from the South Carolina government in December 1718, after helping Bonnet and Herriot escape! Capt. Fayrer Hall of the Sea Nymph barely got scratched in Bonnet’s capture. Interestingly, he sued Richard Tookerman in early 1719 and demanded the kingly sum of £581. The two may have had a previous arrangement wherein Tookerman failed to uphold his end of the bargain. Hall, therefore, covertly sought recompense. The court, presided over again by Admiralty Judge Nicholas Trott, granted Hall the much more reasonable sum of £83 for his services as captain of the Sea Nymph, leaving Hall quite short of his hopes. 

Rhett probably heard about the coercion between Hall and Tookerman later, but before he could confront Hall over the affair, his son, 26-year-old merchant William Rhett Jr., was burglarized. His house was robbed by – Richard Tookerman. A wooden box containing eighty spread eagle pieces of silver and a package of coral and amber were stolen. Rhett suspected Tookerman, whose house was searched, and a portion of the coral and about forty or fifty spread eagle pieces were found on him, his wife Katherine, and some of his slaves. Tookerman was arrested once again, and was brought to trial for the robbery. He was convicted and jailed. Tookerman and several others broke out of jail, stole a number of horses and slaves, and fled to Virginia. From Virginia he made his way to Barbados and then to Jamaica, leaving his wife and children behind. 


Not to be outdone, Hall also sued Col. William Rhett for slander the next year. Apparently, Rhett accused Hall openly of being a pirate. Hall claimed that this imputation of piracy had destroyed his "hitherto untainted" reputation. Still, Hall had been recently convicted of assault and battery when he invaded a neighbor's home, assaulting him only months before "sort of" battling Bonnet in the Cape Fear River.  

A decidedly Jacobite Richard Tookerman later paired with Daniel and Thomas Porter, two pirates that formerly served under Benjamin Hornigold and they joined Bartholomew Roberts' crew. Tookerman also successfully sued Capt. Edward Vernon for false arrest after evading those charges that Vernon leveled against him for saluting the Pretender's (James III) birthday in Port Royal Harbor. Tookerman publicly took out an ad against Vernon before winning his case:


Daily Journal (London, England), Tuesday, November 21, 1721; Issue CCLIX.
Obviously, there's a great deal more to this quite convoluted story than simply a mere trial. The simple idea of justice never seemed so simple in practice, especially when the general population of America seemed perfectly content with violating the rules - without doubt, America liked piracy. It thrived on it for decades. Edward Thache may have been the victim of the British government's (specifically the Board of Trade) efforts to rhetorisize him into a nasty, notorious villain.... because Americans fully supported the economic system of piracy and probably saw Thache as their hero. He may possibly have led a rebellion against Britain, with Jacobite grievances running as high as they did after the failed rebellion in 1715. His service in the Royal Navy was probably as an officer on HMS Windsor and he may have had the experience and training to pull off a coup.

It might also be that Charles Town merchants had simply grown weary of Edward Thache who annoyed them on numerous occasions. They really wanted him out of their hair! After all, Blackbeard dared to blockade their port, captured their ships that tried to enter or leave port, and held their trade still for an entire week! Herriot and Pell were promised immunity if they would swear to the deposition - to the treachery of the "notorious" Blackbeard the Pirate!

Sounds rather like corrupt police practice, wouldn't you say? Personally, I like "Black Sails" the TV series because it portrays pirates in a more accurate light, no doubt due to the consulting author Benerson Little who really knows his naval history. But the last episode's portrayal of Charleston and its Col. William Rhett was far from the mark in my opinion. Everyone there at the time were opportunists - it was not the civilized place that "Black Sails" made it out to be. The activities of these pirates/local citizenry give a better portrayal in actual records, when examined in full. Richard Tookerman was not that unusual, nor were his friends Stede Bonnet and David Herriot.

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Warning!! This could change your most basic perceptions...

See how the Bahamas and its sister colony Carolina became pirate strongholds through neglect of its wealthy private owners years before Hornigold and Thache and their “Flying Gang” - how pirates came to the American South, killed 600,000 people to maintain their "peculiar" institution of slavery, and developed a unique conservative ideology that survives today.

See where America began – from New Providence and Charleston to the Lower Cape Fear - enmeshed in the violent wilderness “beyond the lines of amity” – competition and sport, stealing treasure and burning ships - with Caribbean Buccaneers and Pirates of the Golden Age!


 http://www.lulu.com/shop/baylus-c-brooks/pirates-slaves-making-america/paperback/product-22351221.html


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Look for the article:
“ ‘Born in Jamaica of Very Creditable Parents’ or ‘A Bristol Man Born’? Excavating the Real Edward Thache, ‘Blackbeard the

Pirate’ “ in the July issue of North Carolina Historical Review!

http://nc-historical-publications.stores.yahoo.net/the-north-carolina-historical-review.html



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Blackbeard Reconsidered: Mist's Piracy, Thache's Genealogy

http://www.amazon.com/B.C.-Brooks/e/B00LKW87WK/ref=ntt_dp_epwbk_0 

http://nc-historical-publications.stores.yahoo.net/4793.html














Author site:
http://baylusbrooks.com

Blackbeard's Genealogy Poster:
http://www.zazzle.com/quest_for_blackbeard_genealogy_of_blackbeard_poster-228428311978741827



Blackbeard in French records:
http://bcbrooks.blogspot.com/2015/07/blackbeards-capture-of-la-concorde-or.html


Other publications of Baylus C. Brooks:
http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/bcbrooks

Dianne's Genealogical Research Site:
http://www.genealogyplusjamaica.com/

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